1. Rome was founded by the
    A. Latins.

  2. In the earliest history of the Italian peninsula, which of the following peoples controlled modern-day Rome?
    A. the Latins

  3. The Romans absorbed the fundamentals of urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, bronze, gold crafting, and the arch from
    B. Etruscans.

  4. Which of the following peoples had settled the northwest portion of the Italian peninsula?
    B. the Etruscans

  5. Urban planning, chariot racing, the toga, and the architectural arch were ideas used by the Romans, but handed down from the
    C. Etruscans.

  6. The powerful class of large landowners was known as
    D. patricians.

  7. The Punic Wars were between
    B. Romans and Phoenicians.

  8. Which of the following constituted the large-acreage land-holding agricultural population of ancient Rome?
    B. patricians

  9. Which of the following peoples did Rome fight for the 150 years of the Punic Wars?
    D. the Phoenicians

  10. Josephus’s Description of the Roman Army:
    D. all of the choices are correct (a military machine, disciplined and dedicated to duty, and had been born with weapons in their hands)

  11. The collapse of the Republic began with
    A. the disappearance of the small farmer.

  12. Which of these was the vital North African port captured by Rome at the end of the Punic Wars?
    A. Carthage

  13. Which of the following does the text underscore as the beginning event of the decline of the Roman Republic?
    B. the disappearance of the small farmer

  14. Julius Caesar’s assassination resulted from his
    C. populist reforms.

  15. The statue of Augustus of Primaporta has Cupid and a dolphin at his feet as
    D. reminders of his alleged divine descent from Venus.

  16. The first dictator of Rome was
    C. Gaius Julius Caesar.

  17. The first emperor of the newly minted Roman Empire was
    B. Augustus.

  18. In order to maintain the Pax Romana, Augustus
    A. passed laws to curb adultery.

  19. One of Rome’s most original and influential achievements was
    C. development of a system of law.

  20. Multiple arches used architecturally in any sequence forms a(n)
    B. vault.

  21. Which traditional Greek architectural order was used to build Rome’s Colosseum?
    D. All these answers are correct. (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian)

  22. The Stoics believed
    B. an impersonal force governed the world.

  23. The noted essayist Seneca argued that one might achieve peace of mind by
    D. all of the choices are correct. (avoiding burdensome responsibilities, avoiding gloomy companions, and avoiding excessive wealth)

  24. Early western Christian churches were modeled architecturally on Rome’s basilicas, which were the
    central space in a typical
    C. bath.

  25. Which of the following best describes Roman sculpture and painting?
    C. realistic

  26. According to Cicero, Roman education emphasized
    A. civic duty.

  27. The most notable representative of the Roman Golden Age of Literature was
    D. Virgil.

  28. In an ancient Roman villa, the large central hall open to the sky was called
    D. the atrium.

  29. Which of the following was a likely cause of the fall of the Roman Empire?
    D. All these answers are correct. (the difficulties of governing such a huge empire, the decline of the slave trade, and the increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor)

  30. The greatest Latin poet Catullus celebrated
    A. his passionate affair with a Roman consul’s wife.

  31. The theme of Ovid’s Metamorphosis is
    C. the supernatural transformation of Greek and Roman gods.

  32. Juvenal’s satire reflects Rome as
    C. noisy, dirty, and crowded.

  33. Romans considered which of the following as their most significant technological achievement?
    A. the aqueducts

  34. The phrase “bread and circuses” came from
    A. handouts to the impoverished millions of Rome.

  35. The Pantheon was
    B. a temple dedicated to the seven planetary deities.

  36. Roman art, both sculpture and painting, is known for its
    D. realism.